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PANSS™

Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale

Stanley R. Kay, Ph.D., Lewis A. Opler, M.D., Ph.D., Abraham Fiszbein, M.D.

Measure the positive and negative syndromes of schizophrenia to develop treatment plans


PANSS™

Overview

Overview

The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS™) is based on findings that schizophrenia comprises at least two distinct syndromes: the positive syndrome, consisting of productive symptoms; and the negative syndrome, consisting of deficit features. It is useful when developing treatment plans because you can focus on the type of symptoms the patient is experiencing. The PANSS is also helpful when studying the effects of medication (e.g., in clinical drug trials) because it allows you to determine which type of symptoms are being affected.

Key Areas Measured

  • Positive Scale
  • Negative Scale
  • General Psychopathology Scale
  • Supplemental Aggression Risk Profile

 

Key Areas Measured


Key Areas Measured

Key areas measured diagram

Quick Reference

Age

Age

18 and Older

Administration Type

Administration Type

Professional
Observer
Interview

Administration Time

Administration Time

30 to 40 Minutes

Number of Items

Number of Items

PANSS: 33
SCI-PANSS: 179
IQ-PANSS: 98

Qualification Level

Qualification Level

B

Format(s)

Format(s)

Handscored

Complementary Tools

Complementary Tools

MCCB

Quick Reference

Age

Age

18 and Older

Administration Type

Administration Type

Professional
Observer
Interview

Administration Time

Administration Time

30 to 40 Minutes

Number of Items

Number of Items

PANSS: 33
SCI-PANSS: 179
IQ-PANSS: 98

Qualification Level

Qualification Level

B

Format(s)

Format(s)

Handscored

Complementary Tools

Complementary Tools

MCCB

Components

Components

How To Use

How To Use

Reliability and Validity

Reliability and Validity

Normative Data

Normative Data

Structured Clinical Interview for PANSS (SCI-PANSS)

To optimize the instrument’s objectivity, the SCI-PANSS was developed to secure reliable information. The SCI-PANSS can be used to gather information objectively prior to completing the PANSS assessment.

Informant Questionnaire (IQ-PANSS)

The IQ-PANSS evaluates phenomenological presentation. Through item definitions, statements, and questions, the questionnaire ensures that all information related to behavioral presence, frequency, and responsiveness is obtained during interviews with family members, healthcare providers, or other informants.

The PANSS is a handscored instrument. It can be scored using the standard Dimensional scoring or the Pentagonal scoring method. The Pentagonal method uses 25 PANSS items organized into five scales: Negative, Positive, Dysphoric Mood, Activation, and Autistic Preoccupation.

Thirty years of research support the use of the PANSS as a psychometrically sound measure of the presence and severity of symptoms of schizophrenia. The scales have demonstrated excellent internal consistency (coefficient alpha and split-half reliability) and consistency over time (test-retest reliability) while still being sensitive to change. The PANSS Positive and Negative symptom ratings are highly correlated with the Anderson method for evaluation, and the General Psychopathology scale has demonstrated significant associations with the NIMH Clinical Global Impression Scale.

Psychopharmacological research supports the PANSS’ construct, discriminative, convergent, and predictive validity. In addition, the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is supportive of the use of the PANSS as an outcome measure in clinical trials assessing drug efficacy, given the volume of studies that support its sensitivity to medication and other treatment effects when used longitudinally.

Normative data was gathered from a sample of 240 medicated schizophrenics. The major scales were all found to exhibit the characteristic Gaussian (bell-shaped) distribution curves, without significant skewness or kurtosis, which was taken to indicate that the scores are normally distributed in the comparison sample. Complete normative data are provided in the PANSS Manual.

Pricing
Online

Online

Assess easily online from anywhere. Includes automatic scoring and report generation.

Software

Software

Requires software. Includes automatic scoring and report generation.

Handscored

Handscored

QuikScore forms are scored by hand without reports.

Starter Kits
Certification

Starter Kits

Simulations
Certification

Simulations

Kits

PANSS Complete Kit

PANSS Technical Manual, 25 PANSS Forms, 25 SCI-PANSS Forms, and 25 IQ-PANSS Forms

Handscored
CA: $330.00

Forms

SCI-PANSS Forms

SCI-PANSS Forms

Handscored
CA: $117.00
(Sold in packs of 25)

PANSS Forms Revised

PANSS Forms Revised

Handscored
CA: $67.00
(Sold in packs of 25)

IQ-PANSS Forms

IQ-PANSS Forms

Handscored
CA: $107.00
(Sold in packs of 25)

Ortiz PVAT Licenses

Ortiz PVAT Licenses

Online Scoring

Online Scoring

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Materials

Other Materials

Other Materials

PANSS Technical Manual -Revised

PANSS Technical Manual -Revised

Default Title
CA:
$71.00